# Typhoon™ 2.85mm Filament Extruder

# What's in the box

Item Quantity
Typhoon™ 2.85mm Filament Extrusion System 1
Typhoon™ Heatcore 1
NEMA23 Stepper Motor 1
10A Solid State Relay (SSR) 2
Digital Stepper Motor Driver 1
Cable harness 1
Motor Cable 1
Dowel pins 2

# What you need

  • 2 x PT100 Amplifier circuits. Typhoon™ is using 2 PT100 for temperature sensing and you need a PT100 amplifier board to make them work with your printer controller board. Any amplifier circuit will work, as PT100 is pretty standard. We do however recommend using our own amplifier board available on our online store (opens new window).
  • Liquid-Cooling system (if you're not using Dyze Design Liquid Cooling Kit). You can find the minimum specs in our liquid cooling (opens new window) section.

WARNING

The Typhoon™ was designed to be actively cooled by a water loop. If you try to use it without a liquid cooling loop, you will experience issues.

# Mounting

Mounting the Typhoon can be done from 3 faces; Left, Right, and Back. Each one have two possible ways for the screws; either through holes or tapped holes. Depending on your mounting plate, one solution might be easier to access. Each face has two dowels holes for accurate positioning.

  • Threaded holes are M4x0.70 and thread engagement should be 7.00mm.
  • Dowels Pins holes are 4.00mm x 6.00mm depth

Check out our drawing page to get the 3D STEP file. Design your bracket according to the available mounting options.

On the CAD file, consider the following references:

  • 3.30mm holes are M4.00 x 0.70 threaded holes
  • 4.00mm holes are reamed holes for dowels pins
  • 4.50mm holes are clearance for M4 screws

Typhoon Mounting Example

# Wiring

The Typhoon comes with a cable harness that is designed to connect from the HeatCore up to your electric box. The standard length is 2 meters. A diagram is show below with more information about the electrical connections.

Typhoon Harness Drawing

Typhoon Harness Picture

# Heaters

Each heater has its own SSR. Two SSR can be provided with the Typhoon.

The fuse is optional but strongly suggested. Each fuse should be rated according to the power rating:

  • Top heater, 250 Watts, 2.5A for 120VAC and 1.25A for 240VAC systems
  • Bottom heater, 150 Watts, 1.5A for 120VAC and 0.75A for 240VAC systems

Many pins can be used as the temperature output control. Your 3D Printer Controller (or motion controller) pins can be as below:

  • The standard extruder output (E0, E1, E2, etc). These are usually rated at the same voltage as your main power supply (12VDC or 24VDC).
  • Any available expansion pins. These can be determined by checking the 3D Printer Controller specification pins.

Please refer to the following diagram for wiring the Typhoon: Typhoon Electrical Connections and Wiring

# Backplate Add-On Connectors

The Typhoon has two extra connectors at its back. One is for fans, the other is for the Z probe (bed sensor).

Typhoon Backplate Connectors

# Fan connector

The fan connector mates with a Molex Mini-Fit Jr. The mating housing part number is 469920210.

Pin 1 Pin 2
GND V+

# Sensor connector

The sensor connector mates with a Molex SL. The mating housing part number is 50579403.

Pin 1 Pin 2 Pin 3
V+ Signal GND

# Stepper Driver

# Using your own stepper driver

It’s possible to use your own stepper driver. However, make sure it can drive the motor with the specifications below, especially the current. We won’t be able to offer adequate support if an insufficient stepper driver is used.

# Using the Digital Stepper Motor Driver

Connect the PULSE (STEP), DIR, and ENA between your motion controller and the stepper driver. Please refer to your motion controller manufacturer datasheet for proper connections and pin locations.

WARNING

Do not connect the power output from a stepper driver into the signal input from our provided stepper driver.

ENA is optional. Stepper will be always active when open.

Apply power through V+ and V- according to the stepper driver specifications. Stepper windings should be connected to A+, A-, B+, B-. Colors are usually as follows: Black, Green, Red, Blue.

Check the micro-stepping and current configuration. Current should be set at 2.7A RMS and stepping should be set at 3200 pulses/revolutions (Equivalent to 16 micro-steps).

SW1 SW2 SW3 SW4 SW5 SW6 SW7 SW8
ON ON OFF ON ON ON OFF ON

# Liquid cooling

The Typhoon is actively cooled by a water loop. Cooled parts are made from aluminum alloy, thus an aluminum radiator is required to prevent galvanic corrosion. Please check our liquid cooling (opens new window) section for more details.

# Part cooling

Typhoon Part Cooling

For part cooling, you can either design your own fan duct or you can take advantage of the integrated cooling shroud near the nozzle tip.

Each hole is about 3.2mm diameter.

Typhoon's integrated cooling shroud drawing

# How to use

The cooling shroud is intended to work with compressed air. You can plug the air compressor tubing in the Pneumatic Push-In fitting at the back of the heatcore.

A 20-30 PSI air compressor should be enough to cool your printed parts.

Typhoon's Pneumatic Push-In fitting for compressed air

# Using the cooling shroud with your printer board

If you want your 3d printer board to control the air supply, you will have to use a solenoid valve with a power mosfet and plug the relay signal in the FAN input of your 3d printer controller board.

Please refer to the following diagram for connecting the cooling shroud:

Typhoon's integrated cooling shroud schematic

# 3D Printer Guideline

The Typhoon has a strong titanium heat barrier. However, this part is still the weak point of the melting zone and can be broken under certain circumstances. Make sure to follow these guidelines to prevent any damage to your Typhoon.

# General

Printing without cooling is only possible with large parts. Thick and large layers take time to cool down, thus requiring you to reduce speed for small parts.

Z homing must be done very carefully due to thermal expansion. For bed leveling with a cold extruder, make sure you compensate the thermal expansion:

  • 0.25mm @ 200°C
  • 0.41mm @ 300°C
  • 0.56mm @ 400°C

Typhoon is designed and tested for 2.85mm filament. Never use “real” 3.00mm filament.

# Use Z lift

Raising the Z axis between each fast-travel is required. It will prevent any collision with the printed part. See the Slicer section for more info.

# Consider thermal expansion

It’s critical to consider the heat cylinder thermal expansion when doing the bed leveling. For example, if leveling at room temperature, the printing head will be 0.25mm lower. See the General topic to learn more.

# Maximum Axis Force

Make sure your axis isn't overpowered. Steppers don’t give feedback on their torque and an overpowered axis could easily damage the Typhoon.The Typhoon can resist a force of 50N at the tip of the nozzle.

# Non-Planar Typhoon™

The guidelines described in this document regarding the Typhoon™ also apply to the Non-Planar Typhoon™. There is no extra wiring, electronics or mounting to do.

Refer to the drawings and table below for an overall comparison between the Typhoon™ and Non-Planar Typhoon™.

Typhoon™ Non-Planar Typhoon™
Maximum recommended nozzle temperature 500 °C 400 °C
Overall length 222 mm 237mm
Part cooling
Minimal inclination angle (refer to drawings below) 8 ° 45 °

Typhoon NP compared to Typhoon front view

Typhoon NP compared to Typhoon side view

Typhoon NP clearance

WARNING

Hot nozzle. Beware, contact may cause burns.

# Robotic Arm Guideline

If you plan on installing the Typhoon on a robotic Arm, you'll need to get some extra hardware to get the same features as a 3D printer controller. These items are the following:

  • A motion planner capable of outputting STEP / DIR pulses for the stepper driver.
  • Two (2) PT100 temperature sensor inputs.
  • Two (2) digital output to drive the SSRs.

# Firmware

# Marlin Firmware

2.0.x

# Configuration.h

Set number of extruders:

#define EXTRUDERS 2

Set the correct temperature sensor values. Please refer to Marlin thermal settings (opens new window) to find the correct value based on your amplifier circuit or your actual setup.

#define TEMP_SENSOR_0 20 //could be 21
#define TEMP_SENSOR_1 20 //could be 21

Set temperature min temp:

#define HEATER_0_MINTEMP 19
#define HEATER_1_MINTEMP 19

Set temperature max temp:

#define HEATER_0_MAXTEMP 500
#define HEATER_1_MAXTEMP 500

WARNING

The temperature sensor has a slight response time, and is damaged after 500°C, so if you set the fail safe to 500°C, it may rise to 525°C because of the response time. In that regard, we suggest to set a lower max temperature such as 480 or 485.

The heaters are very powerful, which is required for engineering and advanced polymers. If you are planning on printing low temperature, reduce the bang_max from 255 to 127.

Set temperature bang_max:

#define BANG_MAX 127

Increase the PID_functional_range:

#define PID_FUNCTIONAL_RANGE 40

Set the base PID values:

 #define DEFAULT_Kp 2.85
 #define DEFAULT_Ki 0.07
 #define DEFAULT_Kd 27.57

Set the extruder steps per mm: Note: {X Axis, Y Axis, Z Axis, E Axis} The value of the XYZ axis may vary and are shown as XXX.XX

#define DEFAULT_AXIS_STEPS_PER_UNIT   { XXX.XX, XXX.XX, XXX.XX, 274 }

Set the max feed rate: Note: {X Axis, Y Axis, Z Axis, E Axis} The value of the XYZ axis may vary and are shown as XXX.XX

#define DEFAULT_MAX_FEEDRATE          { XXX, XXX, XXX, 50 }

Switch enable logic for the extruder motor:

#define E_ENABLE_ON 1

# Configuration_adv.h

Configure the external stepper driver

#define MINIMUM_STEPPER_POST_DIR_DELAY 500
#define MINIMUM_STEPPER_PRE_DIR_DELAY 500
#define MINIMUM_STEPPER_PULSE 3
#define MAXIMUM_STEPPER_RATE 200000

# RepRap Firmware

TIP

In your configuration file, you should find values similar to the ones below. However, we do recommend that you use the online ReRap Firmware configurator tool (opens new window).

WARNING

The following information is based on Duet 2 and RepRap Firmware 3.x. We strongly suggest that you also read the official Duet/RepRap documentation (opens new window) to make sure you correctly connected and configured your Duet board, PT100 (RTD) amplifier board and RepRap firmware version.

# Config.g

Set the correct temperature sensor values. Please refer to Duet documentation to find the correct value based on your amplifier circuit.

M308 S1 P"spi.cs1" Y"rtd-max31865"    		 	; configure sensor 1 as PT100 on pin e0temp
M308 S2 P"spi.cs2" Y"rtd-max31865"             ; configure sensor 2 as PT100 on pin e1temp

Set temperature max temp:

M143 H0 S500
M143 H1 S500

WARNING

The temperature sensor has a slight response time, and is damaged after 500°C, so if you set the fail safe to 500°C, it may rise to 525°C because of the response time. In that regard, we suggest to set a lower max temperature such as 480 or 485.

Set the extruder steps per mm:

M92 XXXX.X YXXX.X ZXXX.X E274.0

Set the max feed rate:

M203 XXXXX YXXXX ZXXXX E3000

Assign heaters 1 and 2 to the same tool:

M563 P0 D0 H1:2 S"Typhoon"

Configure external stepper drivers:

M569 PXXX SXXX R1 T3:3:5:0

The heaters are very powerful, which is required for engineering and advanced polymers. If you are planning on printing low temperature, reduce the maximum PWM by 50%.

Set maximum PWM (Change HX by H0, H1, H2, etc. Based on your heater configuration):

M307 HX S0.50

# Repetier Firmware

TIP

In your configuration file, you should find values similar to the ones below. However, we do recommend that you use the online Repetier Firmware configurator tool (opens new window).

# Configuration.h

Set the correct temperature sensor values. Please refer to Repetier configurator tool (opens new window) to find the correct value based on your PT100 amplifier circuit.

#define EXT0_TEMPSENSOR_TYPE 13
#define EXT1_TEMPSENSOR_TYPE 13

Set temperature min temp:

#define MIN_DEFECT_TEMPERATURE 20

Set temperature max temp:

#define MAXTEMP 500
#define MAX_DEFECT_TEMPERATURE 505

WARNING

The temperature sensor has a slight response time, and is damaged after 500°C, so if you set the fail safe to 500°C, it may rise to 525°C because of the response time. In that regard, we suggest to set a lower max temperature such as 480 or 485.

The heaters are very powerful, which is required for engineering and advanced polymers. If you are planning on printing low temperature, reduce the bang_max from 255 to 127.

Set maximum power output:

#define EXT0_PID_MAX 127
#define EXT1_PID_MAX 127

Set the extruder steps per mm:

#define EXT0_STEPS_PER_MM 274

Set the max feed rate:

#define EXT0_MAX_FEEDRATE 200

Switch enable logic for the extruder motor:

#define EXT0_ENABLE_ON 1

# Configuration_adv.h

Configure the external stepper driver

#define STEPPER_HIGH_DELAY 3
#define DIRECTION_DELAY 5

# Slicer and Print Settings

  • Set vertical lift to at least your layer thickness. For layers of 1.00mm, lift 1.00mm. Slicers aren’t yet optimized for large prints. Many over-extruded sections will be noticeable. Lifting the head will prevent any collision with the printed part.

  • Wipe nozzle to at least the line width. For a line width of 3.50mm, wipe 3.50mm or greater.

  • Set the heating to both heaters to the required temperature in the start Gcode script. Make sure to refer to your slicer documentation for variable names.

M109 T0 S[first_layer_temperature]
M109 T1 S[first_layer_temperature]
  • Set end script to turn off both extruders:
M104 T0 S0 ; turn off extruder
M104 T1 S0 ; turn off extruder
  • Output flow and pressure greatly changed depending on the printing speed. To get the best result, keep the output flow steady by keeping the same speed everywhere.

  • Change the filament setting to 2.85 mm. Typhoon™’s step/mm was calculated using the area of a 2.85 mm filament. You will notice an exaggerated over extrusion with 1.75 mm filament in the slicer’s settings.

# Printing Speed

The tables below gives you the maximum volumetric flow for a specific polymer according to the nozzle size. If your polymer isn't there, please contact us (opens new window) and we'll do our best to add it to this list. We suggest using the Recommended volumetric flow as a starting point, but we also provided the Absolute maximum volumetric flow for reference.

Depending on your slicer configuration, a bit of math is required in order to find the right printing speed. The important parameters from your slicer are:

  • Layer height
  • Line width

For simplification, we won't consider the round edges for our speed calculation, but you can read more here (opens new window) if you are interested.

Flow calculation Example

# Example Speed Calculation

Let's consider an example with the following parameters:

  • Filament: ASA
  • Typhoon nozzle: 2.50mm
  • Layer height: 2.00mm
  • Line width: 6.00mm

Considering the recommended table, ASA using a 2.50mm nozzle has a volumetric flow of 182 mm³/s.

The printing speed should be under 15.2 mm/s. It might seems slow, but remember that it is still 182 mm³/s, which is close to 1kg / h.

Extruded layer diagram

Polymer Company Test Temperature (C) 2.50mm 1.80mm 1.20mm 0.90mm 0.60mm
PCL Filaments.ca 140 74 47 31 25 21
LLDPE Filaments.ca 200 142 112 86 71 55
PLA Overture 210 128 104 79 67 51
PLA-N 3D Filkemp 215 113 94 70 55 35
NinjaFlex TPU 3.00mm 230 30 25 20 18 15
ABS Filaments.ca 230 145 125 86 70 60
TPU 91A Filaments.ca 240 79 72 59 51 48
TPE 90A Filaments.ca 240 79 68 53 45 33
TPE 85A Filaments.ca 240 90 70 52 41 28
nGen colorFabb 240 153 149 99 81 68
PP FormFutura 240 199 170 144 126 98
HIPS Kodak 240 195 167 136 113 90
PA6 Kodak 250 95 85 77 70 65
D3 woodfill Laywoo 250 216 203 180 164 138
PETG Overture 250 137 127 101 81 72
ASA Filaments.ca 250 182 158 114 86 72
PC CPE Filaments.ca 260 139 120 107 90 82
Ultem PEI Filaments.ca 330 75 73 68 63 59

# Absolute maximum volumetric flow (mm³/s)

Polymer Company Test Temperature (C) 2.50mm 1.80mm 1.20mm 0.90mm 0.60mm
PCL Filaments.ca 140 90 60 45 38 27
LLDPE Filaments.ca 200 158 136 109 85 70
PLA Overture 210 142 115 88 78 60
PLA-N 3D Filkemp 215 125 104 85 75 65
NinjaFlex TPU 3.00mm 230 37 29 22 20 17
ABS Filaments.ca 230 161 138 95 85 70
TPU 91A Filaments.ca 240 88 80 65 57 53
TPE 90A Filaments.ca 240 87 76 59 50 38
TPE 85A Filaments.ca 240 103 80 62 50 42
nGen colorFabb 240 170 165 110 90 75
PP FormFutura 240 222 200 169 140 110
HIPS Kodak 240 216 185 151 125 100
PA6 Kodak 250 109 96 85 78 75
D3 woodfill Laywoo 250 240 225 200 183 173
PETG Overture 250 153 141 112 90 80
ASA Filaments.ca 250 202 175 126 95 80
PC CPE Filaments.ca 260 154 133 119 100 91
Ultem PEI Filaments.ca 330 83 82 75 70 65

# Maintenance & Troubleshooting

# Clogged Nozzle

WARNING

Never drill any parts from the Typhoon. Some parts are hardened, others have a specific surface roughness. The drill could damage or get broken and stuck inside the unit.

# Causes

Clogging can be caused by a few factors. Make sure you understand which one is causing the issue and solve it before attempting a new print.

  1. Bad slicer settings
  • Too high retraction. Make sure you are not pulling the molten filament too high. Try reducing it or disable it to see if the problem is solved.
  • Too high volumetric flow. Make sure you aren't asking too much of the Typhoon. Thick and wide lines are misleading since a slow printing speed can still represent a high volumetric throughput.
  1. Bad filament conditions.
  • Filament is not dry. A filament containing a lot of moisture will foam at the entry and greatly increase the friction. The print quality will also greatly suffer.
  • Wrong temperatures. Usually, because of the very long melting zone, lower temperature can lead to better results.
  • Bad filament quality. Always choose well rated polymers, and reliable brands. Paying a little more can save you a lot of trouble.
  1. Bad extruder and heatbreak cooling.
  • Water is not flowing. Make sure the water is flowing properly. Validate my probing the extruder body temperature.
  • Water is too hot. Think about changing the radiator or the fan for a bigger one.

# Solution

  1. Temporary extrude hotter
  • Raise the temperature by steps of 10°C.
  • Wait until the setpoint is reached.
  • Send a slow extrusion command such as the one below. Please note that trying to push the filament by hand is worthless. The extruder has much more force.
G0 F60 E25
  • Repeat until the extruder is unclogged or the temperature is too high.
  1. Visually inspect the system
  • Set the target temperature to 0°C and wait until the unit has cooled.
  • Loosen the filament lever.
  • Remove the HeatCore. Slowly bring it down to see the filament.
  • Observe the filament. Is there a larger, deformed section close to the threaded part of the HeatCore? Is there grinding marks from the driving section?
  • If the filament looks undamaged and consistent in diameter, cut it flush to the heatbreak. However, if the filament looks larger and flattened, use a heatgun and point it towards the threads of the HeatCore. Slowly pull the filament out of the heatbreak.

# Gears

The gears can be accessed by removing two screws on the top. You should use those holes to grease the gears.

Removing screws on the top of Typhoon extruder

Applying grease in the Typhoon extruder

Remove the filament while greasing the gears and let the motor run freely while gently applying grease.

We suggest using white lithium grease. The Typhoon comes pre-greased with white lithium grease, ISO Viscosity Grade of 150.

We suggest using a small sized grease gun such as the Astro Mini Grease Gun (opens new window).

Using a grease gun

Last Updated: 4/16/2022, 6:03:56 PM