# Zephyr™ 1.75mm Filament Extruder

# Revision

Date Revision Modifications
2024-06-27 R001 Initial Release

# Specifications

See product specification here. (opens new window)

# General

# What’s Included

Item Quantity
Zephyr™ high performance filament extruder 1
Mounting Hardware (2X M4X10 Low Profile cap screw) 1

# Available accessories with your Zephyr™ Extruder

Item Quantity
Stepper Driver:
- Dyze Design’s Digital Stepper Motor Driver
- Ethernet/IP Stepper Driver (STF06)
1
Cable Harness (3m long)
- Signal Harness
- Power Harness
1
PT100 Amplifier Boards
- Dyze Design’s PT100 Amplifier Boards
- Duet PT100 Daughter Boards
2
PID Temperature Controller (NOVUS N1040) 1
Dyze Design’s Liquid Cooling System 1
Liquid Cooling Fitting Kit (Unavailable during the Early Access)
- 2* M8 x 1.00 Elbow or Compression Fitting
- 2* M8 x 1.00 Plug
- 1 * Water Cooling Front Block
- Required Fasteners
1
High Temperature Liquid Cooling Tubing Sold by the meter
Part Cooling Kit
- Centrifugal Fan Assembly
- 1* Part Cooling Bracket
- Required Fasteners
1

* If you need any of these items, contact sales.

# What’s required

  • 24VDC Power Supply minimum 15A
    • Required for the Zephyr™ cooling fan & heaters
    • Required for the Part Cooling Add-On
  • 12VDC Power Supply
    • Required for the Water Cooling Add-On (if using Dyze Design liquid cooling)
  • 24-48VDC Power Supply
    • For driving the stepper driver
  • 2 x PT100 Amplifier circuits.
    • Dyze Design amplifier
    • RTD Amplifier for Duet & RepRapFirmware
    • Any other equivalent
  • Any open-source, firmware available, 3D Printer Controller Board
    • Open Source types:
      • Duet3D
      • BTT SKR
      • BTT Octopus
      • MKS
      • SmoothieBoard
      • Rambo
    • CNC Type
      • 4th axis
      • Temperature control
    • Robotic Arm
      • Dyze Design RoboSync™ Hub (Robotic Arm Controller)
  • Liquid Cooling System (if using Water Cooling Add-on)
    • Dyze Design can offer a custom liquid cooling system tailored for 3D printing as an add-on with your extrusion system

# Safety Notice

Zephyr Heat Hazard, Hazardous Emissions and Electrical Hazard

Heat Hazard

This product generates heat and can cause burns. When performing maintenance, ensure it has cooled down completely before touching any heated parts.

Electrical Hazard

During maintenance, exercise extreme caution to prevent electric shock. Ensure the product is disconnected from the power source before performing any maintenance tasks. Do not touch exposed wires or components. Prioritize safety at all times.

Hazardous Emissions

Some polymers used in this extruder may be hazardous. It is the user's responsibility to check the safety data sheets of the polymers used and to ensure their proper handling. If necessary, a safe enclosure with the appropriate filtering device must be implemented to contain and mitigate any emissions during operation.

# Critical Dos and Don'ts

# Use with Ø1.75 mm thermoplastic filament

This machine is designed to work using Ø1.75 mm thermoplastic or fiber reinforced thermoplastic filament exclusively. Using other materials may result in unpredictable outcomes.

# Use with proper product cooling

Insufficient cooling on the cold zone can lead to overheating and malfunctioning of the product. In such cases, you may need to disassemble the extruder for maintenance to clear any clogs.

# Never drill any parts from the product

Some parts are hardened, others have a specific surface roughness. The drill could damage or get broken and stuck inside the unit.

# Avoid prolonged idle periods

Avoid operating the product for prolonged durations without extrusion: In some instances, this may cause polymer degradation, leading to system clogs.

# Avoid collision with printed part by using vertical lift

To avoid collisions with the printed part, consider using a vertical lift strategy. The vertical lift should be at least equal to the layer thickness. For example, for layers of 1.00mm, lift the head by 1.00mm. It's worth noting that slicers aren't yet optimized for large prints, so you may notice many over-extruded sections. Lifting the head will prevent any collision with the printed part and help prevent equipment damage, ensuring smooth and uninterrupted printing processes.

# Prevent extended exposure to acidic materials, even during downtime

Make sure not to leave acidic materials in the heatblock. It's essential to consistently purge such materials to prevent any degradation of the material. Some PLA and polymer blends have the potential to induce material degradation.

# Be cautious of excessive retraction

Refer to the retraction section for guidelines. Retracting beyond the specified values can lead to molten polymer traveling upward in the heat break, causing clogging issues.

# Watch out for overcurrent on the motor

Overcurrent can cause the motor to overheat, increasing the temperature in the cold zone. This may result in malfunction and clogging.

WARNING

Motors damaged by overcurrent are not covered under our warranty policy. Each product's motor is tested to ensure proper function before shipping.

# Unboxing and Initial Assembly

# Intended Use

The Zephyr™ is an all in one solution extruder and hotend for professional additive manufacturing. Compatible with Ø1.75 mm thermoplastic filament, this machinery is designed to withstand any thermoplastic material or composite with impressive performance and stability. This solution offers a bridge between traditional desktop additive manufacturing and large scale industrial applications.

WARNING

It is of critical importance that you carry out an inspection upon unboxing your Zephyr™ Extruder. In the unlikely event that there’s damage or any issue, get in touch with Dyze Design’s support team.

Dyze Design is not responsible for the Zephyr™'s control, integration to the 3D printer or robotic arm (summarized as motion system) and firmware. Safe control and operation of the Zephyr™ requires the motion system to have a proper firmware with enabled safety features compiled by qualified personnel as well as a physical emergency button which cuts power to the Zephyr™. Safe maintenance requires the Motion System to be powered off and for the Zephyr™ and the motion system to have cooled down. Safe maintenance is to be done by qualified personnel familiar with this user manual.

Contact our support team if you require assistance.

Training and specialized support could also be offered on demand as part of our service plans. (Contact sales for more information)

# Installation / Mounting

Multiple options are available to mount the Zephyr™ extruder.

# Front

From the front using 2x M4 thru holes.

INFO

Mounting from the front requires that the side cover are removed

Zephyr Mounting using 2x M4 thru holes

# Back

From the back using 2x M4 x 0.7 x 6.75 mm threaded holes

Zephyr Back Mounting using 2x M4 x 0.7 x 6.75 mm threaded holes

# Side

From the side using 2x M4 x 0.7 x 6.5 mm threaded holes. Available on both sides

Zephyr Side Mounting using using 2x M4 x 0.7 x 6.5 mm threaded holes.

Check out our drawing page (opens new window) to get the 3D STEP file. Design your bracket according to the available mounting options.

# Water Cooling Add-On

Note

The water cooling add-on is unavailable during the Early Access phase.

The Zephyr™ includes an air cooling system, which is not designed to function at ambient temperatures exceeding 40°C. For improved thermal resilience, we provide the option of a water cooled version, enabling it to endure temperatures of up to 150°C.

Zephyr Water Cooling Block from Front view

To provide further cooling options, it is possible to install a water cooling block on the back face of the motor.

Zephyr Water Cooling Block from Back view

Recommended Tubing : Ø6.35 mm (1/4") ID x Ø9.53mm (3/8") OD High Temperature Rubber Tubing

# Part Cooling Add-On

A part cooling assembly add-on is available for purchase. If not ordered separately, the part cooling bracket will be factory-installed.

Here’s how to install the part cooling bracket.

  1. Remove the Right Side Cover

Zephyr Part Cooling Installation - Remove Right Cover

  1. Remove the Nano-fit Molex Connector

Zephyr Part Cooling Installation - Remove Molex Connector

  1. Insert the crimps in their respective cavities - Polarity must be respected

Zephyr Part Cooling Installation - Part Cooling Installation - Insert Crimp

  1. Install the connector in it’s pocket

Zephyr Part Cooling Installation - Install Connector

  1. Route the wires following the temperature sensor wires.

Zephyr Part Cooling Installation - Route Wires

  1. Install the right side cover

Zephyr Part Cooling Installation - Reinstall Right Cover

  1. Install the Part Cooling Bracket using 2x M3 x 0.5 x 6 screws

Zephyr Part Cooling Installation - Install Part Cooling Bracket

# Wiring

It is possible to order wire harnesses designed to connect the Zephyr™ to your printer. The diagram below provides additional details regarding the electrical connections:

Zephyr Connectors Diagram

Zephyr Wiring Diagram

# Emergency Stop

The Zephyr™ Extruder does not have an emergency stop feature. An emergency stop loop is a must to operate the Extruder safely. The emergency stop must cut the power to the heating elements and the power supply of the motor. This feature can be implemented in your 3d printer firmware and control interface or physically in your control cabinet.

# Temperature Sensors (PT100)

The Zephyr™ employs two PT100 sensors for temperature monitoring, with one sensor allocated for each heated section (Top and Bottom). To integrate these sensors with your printer/robot controller board, you will require PT100 amplifier boards. Any amplifier circuit will suffice, PT100 are widely standardized. We also offer our proprietary Dyze PT100 amplifier board (opens new window), conveniently accessible on our online store.

The temperature input control for your 3D printer can be connected to various pins on your controller. These include: The standard extruder input pins (E0, E1, E2, etc.) Any available expansion pins, which can be identified by referring to the specification pins of your 3D Printer Controller.

For more integration instructions, please refer to our amplifier board documentation page (opens new window).

# Heaters

The Zephyr™ has two 24V DC cartridge heaters. Both are rated 70W. A power mosfet is required to drive enough current to each of the heating elements.

A fuse is strongly suggested. Each fuse should be rated for 5A.

Make sure the controller has the capacity to power both heaters. Otherwise, external power mosfets are required.

Many pins can be used as the temperature output control. Your 3D Printer Controller (or motion controller) pins can be as below:

  • The standard extruder output (E0, E1, E2, etc). These are usually rated at the same voltage as your main power supply (12VDC or 24VDC).
  • Any available expansion pins. These can be determined by checking the 3D Printer Controller specification pins.

Please refer to the Zephyr™ Wiring Diagram.

# Stepper Driver

# Using your own stepper driver

It’s possible to use your own stepper driver. However, make sure it can drive the motor with the specifications below, especially the current. Common stepper drivers could meet the Zephyr’s motor requirements. We won’t be able to offer adequate support if an insufficient stepper driver is used.

Drive Voltage 24-48VDC
Motor Current 1.68A
Frame size NEMA17

# Using Dyze Design's Stepper Driver

If you're using our Dyze Stepper Driver, you can refer to our Zephyr Quick Start Guide in our Dyze Stepper documentation.

# 3D Printer Guideline

# General

Printing without cooling is only possible with large parts. Thick and large layers take time to cool down, thus requiring you to reduce speed for small parts.

# Use Z lift

Raising the Z axis between each fast-travel is required. It will prevent any collision with the printed part. See the Slicer section for more info.

# Robotic Arm Guideline

If you plan on installing the Zephyr™ on a robotic Arm, you'll need to get some extra hardware to get the same features as a 3D printer controller. These items are the following:

A motion planner capable of outputting STEP / DIR pulses for the stepper driver. Two (2) PT100 temperature sensor inputs.

info

Dyze Design is now offering an ethernet/ip controller to enable sync between your robot/robot controller and the Zephyr™ extruder (motor & flow control, heating elements, etc). Contact sales for more information.

# Firmware

# Marlin Firmware

2.0.x

# Configuration.h

Set number of extruders:

#define EXTRUDERS 2

Set the correct temperature sensor values. Please refer to Marlin thermal settings (opens new window) to find the correct value based on your amplifier circuit or your actual setup.

#define TEMP_SENSOR_0 68 //could also be 20 or 21. Check the Marlin thermal settings.
#define TEMP_SENSOR_1 68 //could also be 20 or 21. Check the Marlin thermal settings.

Set temperature min temp:

#define HEATER_0_MINTEMP 15
#define HEATER_1_MINTEMP 15

Set temperature max temp:

#define HEATER_0_MAXTEMP 475
#define HEATER_1_MAXTEMP 475

Set the overshoot limit:

#define HOTEND_OVERSHOOT 15

WARNING

The heaters are very powerful, which is required for engineering and advanced polymers. If you are planning on printing low temperature, reduce the bang_max from 255 to 127.

Set temperature bang_max:

#define BANG_MAX 127

Increase the PID_functional_range:

#define PID_FUNCTIONAL_RANGE 40

Set the base PID values:

#define DEFAULT_Kp 47.16
#define DEFAULT_Ki 3.91
#define DEFAULT_Kd 145.84

Set the extruder steps per mm:

TIP

{X Axis, Y Axis, Z Axis, E Axis}

The value of the XYZ axis may vary and are shown as XXX.XX. The value of 404 serves as an initial reference point. Calibration will be necessary to optimize it for your specific configuration. You can find instructions for this calibration process in the "Calibrating the flow" section.

#define DEFAULT_AXIS_STEPS_PER_UNIT   { XXX.XX, XXX.XX, XXX.XX, 404 }

Set the max feed rate:

TIP

{X Axis, Y Axis, Z Axis, E Axis}

The value of the XYZ axis may vary and are shown as XXX.XX

#define DEFAULT_MAX_FEEDRATE          { XXX, XXX, XXX, 200 }

Switch enable logic for the extruder motor:

#define E_ENABLE_ON 1

# Configuration_adv.h

If you’re using a stepper driver carrier.

#define E0_DRIVER_TYPE name

If you’re using an external Stepper Driver, configure the external stepper driver

#define MINIMUM_STEPPER_POST_DIR_DELAY 500
#define MINIMUM_STEPPER_PRE_DIR_DELAY 500
#define MINIMUM_STEPPER_PULSE 3
#define MAXIMUM_STEPPER_RATE 200000

# PID tuning

Each heater needs to be tuned separately, use the M303 command in the console to run the tuning cycle as detailed here: https://marlinfw.org/docs/gcode/M303.html (opens new window)

Run the PID tuning without any material inside the MeltCore™ or only set a PID target temperature within your material range to avoid clogs.

Example:

M303 E0 S300		;tune heater 0 with a target temperature of 300C

Once the tuning cycle is completed, save the new heater 0 values by entering the M500 command in the console (only works if EEPROM_SETTINGS is enabled in your firmware).

Repeat the process for the second heater. Example:

M303 E1 S300 		;tune heater 1 with a target temperature of 300C

Save the new values for heater 1 with the M500 command.

# RepRap Firmware

TIP

In your configuration file, you should find values similar to the ones below. However, we do recommend that you use the online ReRap Firmware configurator tool (opens new window).

WARNING

The following information is based on Duet 2 and RepRap Firmware 3.x. We strongly suggest that you also read the official Duet/RepRap documentation (opens new window) to make sure you correctly connected and configured your Duet board, PT100 (RTD) amplifier board and RepRap firmware version.

# Config.g

Set the correct temperature sensor values. Please refer to Duet documentation to find the correct value based on your amplifier circuit.

TIP

For the Duet 3 MB6HC, pins spi.cs1 and spi.cs2 should be replaced with spi.cs0 and spi.cs1.

M308 S1 P"spi.cs1" Y"rtd-max31865"    		 	; configure sensor 1 as PT100 on pin e0temp
M308 S2 P"spi.cs2" Y"rtd-max31865"             ; configure sensor 2 as PT100 on pin e1temp

Set temperature max temp:

M143 H0 S500
M143 H1 S500

Set the extruder steps per mm:

M92 XXXX.X YXXX.X ZXXX.X E404

TIP

The value of 404 serves as an initial reference point. Calibration will be necessary to optimize it for your specific configuration. You can find instructions for this calibration process in the "Calibrating the flow" section.

Set the max feed rate:

M203 XXXXX YXXXX ZXXXX E3000

Assign heaters 1 and 2 to the same tool:

M563 P0 D0 H1:2 S"Zephyr"

Configure external stepper drivers (only if using the external stepper driver):

M569 PXXX SXXX R1 T2

# PID tuning

The two heaters need to be tuned separately as it is not yet possible in RepRap to tune both at the same time.

Run the PID tuning without any material inside the MeltCore™ or only set a PID target temperature within your material range to avoid clogs.

Using the M303 command in the Duet console, run the PID tuning for each heater as explained here: https://docs.duet3d.com/User_manual/Reference/Gcodes#m303-run-heater-tuning (opens new window).

Example:

M303 H1 S300		;tune heater 1 with a target temperature of 300C

Once the tuning cycle is done for heater 1, copy the generated M307 command and replace them in your config.g file to the appropriate line.

Then, we tune heater 2 following the same procedure.

Example:

M303 H2 S300		;tune heater 2 with a target temperature of 300C

Copy the generated M307 command for heater 2 and replace it in the config.g file.

The heaters are very powerful, which is required for engineering and advanced polymers. If you are planning on printing low temperature, reduce the maximum PWM by 50%.

If you encounter an overshooting error when trying to heat up the two heaters at the same time, try lowering the PWN value of the problematic heater even more.

Set maximum PWM (Change HX by H0, H1, H2, etc. based on your heater configuration):

M307 H1 S0.50	;the S parameter will depend on your setup
M307 H2 S0.40	;the S parameter will depend on your setup

# Repetier Firmware

TIP

In your configuration file, you should find values similar to the ones below. However, we do recommend that you use the online Repetier Firmware configurator tool (opens new window).

# Configuration.h

Set the correct temperature sensor values. Please refer to Repetier configurator tool (opens new window) to find the correct value based on your PT100 amplifier circuit.

#define EXT0_TEMPSENSOR_TYPE 13
#define EXT1_TEMPSENSOR_TYPE 13

Set temperature min temp:

#define MIN_DEFECT_TEMPERATURE 15

Set temperature max temp:

#define MAXTEMP 500
#define MAX_DEFECT_TEMPERATURE 505

WARNING

The heaters are very powerful, which is required for engineering and advanced polymers. If you are planning on printing low temperature, reduce the bang_max from 255 to 127.

Set maximum power output:

#define EXT0_PID_MAX 127
#define EXT1_PID_MAX 127

Set the extruder steps per mm:

#define EXT0_STEPS_PER_MM 404

TIP

The value of 404 serves as an initial reference point. Calibration will be necessary to optimize it for your specific configuration. You can find instructions for this calibration process in the "Calibrating the flow" section.

Set the max feed rate:

#define EXT0_MAX_FEEDRATE 200

Switch enable logic for the extruder motor:

#define EXT0_ENABLE_ON 1

# Configuration_adv.h

Configure the external stepper driver (if using the external stepper driver):

#define STEPPER_HIGH_DELAY 2
#define DIRECTION_DELAY 2

# PID tuning

Each heater needs to be tuned separately, use the M303 command in the console to run the tuning cycle as detailed here: https://github.com/repetier/Repetier-Firmware/blob/master/src/ArduinoAVR/Repetier/Repetier.ino#L191C3-L194C40 (opens new window)

Run the PID tuning without any material inside the barrel or only set a PID target temperature within your material range to avoid clogs.

Example for heater 0:

M303 P0 S300 X0 R4 C0 ;tune heater 0 with target temperature of 300C, saves result in EEPROM, 4 cycles, classic method

Once the first heater is tuned, run the tuning for the second heater with M303 again.

Example for heater 1:

M303 P1 S300 X0 R4 C0 ;tune heater 1 with target temperature of 300C, saves result in EEPROM, 4 cycles, classic method

# Klipper Firmware

Open the printer.cfg file.

# Create two heaters

The bottom heater will be the one configured in the [extruder] section

Modify the [extruder] section as follows :

TIP

Replace the data in """___""" by your own

[extruder]
step_pin: """ the pin name where the stepper driver pullup + is plugged """
dir_pin: """ the pin name where the stepper driver direction + is plugged """
Enable_pin: """ the pin name where the stepper driver enable + is plugged """
# Check you board manufacturer documentation for these informations
microsteps: """ the microsteps settings your stepper driver is set at, ex: 16 """
rotation_distance: 7.917
# This is a starting average value that you will need to calibrate per material
full_steps_per_rotation: 200
gear_ratio: 3.101
#step_pulse_duration: 0.000002
# Uncomment the above line if you use the Dyze Stepper Driver
nozzle_diameter: """ your nozzle diameter in mm, ex: 1.2 """
filament_diameter: 1.75
heater_pin: """ the pin name where the bottom heater is plugged """
# Check you board manufacturer documentation for this information
sensor_type:  """ your amplifier board name, ex: PT100 INA826 """
# See https://www.klipper3d.org/Config_Reference.html#common-temperature-amplifiers for list of compatibles temperature amplifier names
sensor_pin: """ the pin name where the PT100 for the bottom heater is plugged """
# Check you board manufacturer documentation for this information
control: pid
pid_Kp: 47.16
pid_Ki: 3.91
pid_Kd: 145.84
# Starting values to be customized at first use with a PID autotuning routine
min_temp: 0
max_temp: 500
max_power: 1.0
# Try lowering this value if you have temperature overshooting issues
min_extrude_temp: 150
# Can be customized depending on your own material

The top heater is configured by creating an additional custom heater

In printer.cgf, add the following :

TIP

Replace the data in """___""" by your own

[heater_generic top_heater]
gcode_id: 1
# The id to use when reporting the temperature in the M105 command.
# This parameter must be provided.
# This number will not work with the M104 T1 command, only with the M105 report command
heater_pin: """ the pin name where the top heater is plugged """
# Check you board manufacturer documentation for this information
sensor_type: """ your amplifier board name, ex: PT100 INA826 """
#   See https://www.klipper3d.org/Config_Reference.html#common-temperature-amplifiers for list of compatibles temperature amplifier names
sensor_pin: """ the pin name where the PT100 for the top heater is plugged """
#   Check you board manufacturer documentation for this information
control: pid
pid_Kp: 47.16
pid_Ki: 3.91
pid_Kd: 145.84
# Starting values to be customized at first use with a PID autotuning routine
max_power: 1.0
#   Try lowering this value if you have temperature overshooting issues
min_temp: 0
max_temp: 500

# Calibrate the PID by running a PID autotune routine

Once you have set the heaters in config.g, before using any material you need to run the PID autotuning procedure for each heater separately.

In the command console type and press enter:

PID_CALIBRATE HEATER=extruder TARGET=240

This will calibrate the bottom extruder, we let the top extruder at 0 in the meantime. You can set another target temperature of your choice.

Once the test is completed and the tuning is done, type SAVE_CONFIG in the console to update the config file automatically with the new PID settings.

Once everything has cooled down to ambient temperature, we repeat the process for the top heater by entering in the command console:

PID_CALIBRATE HEATER=top_heater TARGET=240

And then when completed, we save the new settings with SAVE_CONFIG.

Now the two heaters PID are tuned and we can try printing.

# Control the heaters temperature

Add or replace the following whenever appropriate in your PRINT_START macro in firmware:

# Set Extruder Bottom and Top heaters to reach temperature
SET_HEATER_TEMPERATURE HEATER=extruder TARGET={EXTRUDER_BOT_TEMP} #Bottom Heater
SET_HEATER_TEMPERATURE HEATER=top_heater TARGET={EXTRUDER_TOP_TEMP} #Top Heater
# Wait for Extruder Bottom and Top heaters to reach the target printing temperature
{% if printer.extruder.temperature < EXTRUDER_BOT_TEMP|float*0.95 %}
G4 P10000 #Pause 10 seconds
SET_HEATER_TEMPERATURE HEATER=extruder TARGET={EXTRUDER_BOT_TEMP}
{% endif %}
TEMPERATURE_WAIT SENSOR=extruder MINIMUM={EXTRUDER_BOT_TEMP}
{% if printer["heater_generic top_heater"].temperature < EXTRUDER_TOP_TEMP|float*0.95 %}
G4 P10000 #Pause 10 seconds
SET_HEATER_TEMPERATURE HEATER=top_heater TARGET={EXTRUDER_TOP_TEMP}
{% endif %}
TEMPERATURE_WAIT SENSOR="heater_generic top_heater" MINIMUM={EXTRUDER_TEMP}

In your slicer of choice, set your start g-code to this following line, keep it as a single continuous line for it to work:

START_PRINT EXTRUDER_TOP_TEMP={top_temperature} EXTRUDER_BOT_TEMP={bottom_temperature}

INFO

Replace {top_temperature} and {bottom_temperature} by your desired values

Example:

START_PRINT EXTRUDER_TOP_TEMP=190 EXTRUDER_BOT_TEMP=220

If you use Cura and possibly with other slicers you might have to open the gcode in a code editor and remove any automatically generated M104 and M109 commands that could interfere with your custom chosen temperatures.

# Using the Zephyr™ extruder

# Powering on the unit

Once the unit is mounted, the software is configured and electrical connections are finished. The next step is to power the unit.

While the unit is empty perform the following verification :

  1. Make sure the cooling system is in functional condition, may it be air or watercooled

Zephyr Extruder Fan Rotation (counterclockwise)

  1. Low speed extrusion command - Confirm that the wheels’ rotation is clockwise

Zephyr Extruder Wheel Rotation (clockwise)

  1. Setpoint to a low temperature (50-75°C)on the top heater. Make sure the matching sensor reads and the heater works.

  2. Setpoint to a low temperature (50-75°C) on the bottom heater. Make sure the matching sensor reads and the heater works.

# Ø1.75mm Thermoplastic Filament & Cam settings

The Zephyr™ Extruder works using thermoplastic and thermoplastic based composites. The extruder can process both rigid and flexible thermoplastics.

Check the manufacturer's recommended temperature for a starting point.

# Cam Settings

The mechanism permits the adjustment of the minimal space between the extrusion wheels and the filament follower.

Starting on the first position with the minimum distance at 1.1mm and a full opening on the 9th position with 2.0mm.

Zephyr Extruder Cam Settings Diagram

# Loading the filament

  1. Activate the heaters to the filament operating setpoint

  2. Using a 3mm allen key or screwdriver, align the Cam notch to position 9.

Zephyr Extruder Cam Rotation to Position 9

  1. Insert the filament through the extruder until you feel the filament melting

  2. Turning counter clockwise, select your desired filament setting. See the table above for Cam setting details

  3. Once you feel the cam turning free between settings below a certain number, you have the highest penetration and extrusion force the extruder can offer

# Unloading the filament

  1. Activate the heaters to the filament operating setpoint

  2. Using a 3mm allen key or screwdriver, align the Cam notch to position 9.

Zephyr Extruder Cam Rotation to Position 9

  1. Pull the filament through the extruder until it comes out

  2. Turn off the heaters

# Slicer and Print Settings

Set vertical lift to at least your layer thickness. For layers of 1.00mm, lift 1.00mm. Slicers aren’t yet optimized for large prints. Many over-extruded sections will be noticeable. Lifting the head will prevent any collision with the printed part.

Wipe nozzle to at least the line width. For a line width of 3.50mm, wipe 3.50mm or greater.

Set the heating to both heaters to the required temperature in the start Gcode script. Make sure to refer to your slicer documentation for variable names.

M109 T0 S[first_layer_temperature]
M109 T1 S[first_layer_temperature]

Set end script to turn off both extruders:

M104 T0 S0 ; turn off extruder
M104 T1 S0 ; turn off extruder

# Width line and layer height

The nozzle has a flat that keeps the extruded plastic flat and even. By extruding larger than twice (2X) the nozzle diameter (which is the flat diameter), the plastic won’t be flattened by the nozzle. It will result in poor finish and blobs. Having a line width smaller than the nozzle will also give poor results. We strongly suggest using 1.5 times the nozzle diameter for standard filaments, and from 1.1 times to 1.25 times the nozzle diameter for hard to extrude filaments ( i.e. Flexible filaments). This will reduce the pressure needed to extrude and give better results.

Layer height and width are contingent on the nozzle size. Below, you'll find a table that outlines the minimum, maximum, and advisable configurations. For additional details, please consult our informative article (opens new window). These values are a starting point, experienced user may use different ranges.

Nozzle Size (mm) Min Line Width (mm) Max Line Width (mm) Recommended Line Width (mm) Min Layer Height (mm) Max Layer Height (mm) Recommended Layer Height (mm)
0.40 0.24 0.80 0.60 0.10 0.32 0.20
0.60 0.36 1.20 0.90 0.15 0.48 0.30
0.90 0.54 1.80 1.35 0.23 0.72 0.45
1.20 0.72 2.40 1.80 0.30 0.96 0.60
1.80 1.08 3.96 2.70 0.45 1.44 0.90

# Consider thermal expansion

When performing bed leveling at room temperature, it's essential to consider the thermal expansion of the heat cylinder. For example, at an operating temperature of 200°C, the printing head may be 0.10mm lower due to thermal expansion. Exercise caution during Z homing to account for this effect. For bed leveling with a cold extruder (20°C), make sure you compensate the thermal expansion:

Temperature (°C) Extra length (mm)
200 0.10
300 0.15
400 0.21

# Calibrating the flow

The extrusion throughput depends on various factors, including temperatures, polymer type, nozzle size, pellet geometry, and more. For achieving the best results, we recommend calibrating the steps/mm whenever there is a change in a variable that could impact the flow. To perform this calibration, you can use a basic single wall thickness cube. The steps/mm can be adjusted using the following formula:

As an example, let's say we print a 1.5mm wall thickness cube using a 1.2mm nozzle, and initially, the steps/mm are set at 404. After measuring, we find that the actual wall thickness is 1.69mm. To calculate the new steps/mm, you would use the formula as follows:

.

Therefore, the new steps/mm should be set to approximately 358.6 for optimal calibration in this scenario.

Achieving precise calibration often requires multiple iterations. Calibrating 2-3 times in a row can help fine-tune the extrusion process and ensure more accurate and consistent results. Once the step/mm is tuned to your liking, use the flow % to calibrate the other materials you’ll be using

# Using retraction

The titanium has a very low thermal conductivity compared to other metals and allows the heatbreak to be very short. The retraction distance must be lower than 1mm. A longer retraction distance will bring the soft plastic in a cold zone and stick to the wall. The cooled plastic cannot be pushed by a standard motor and is stuck in place. By keeping the retraction lower than 2mm, the filament stays soft and doesn’t clog in place.

To mitigate oozing and globbing, since there's no inherent anti-oozing feature, retraction can be utilized. Yet, exercising caution during retraction is imperative. In a filament extruder it is important to consider the following

Min (backlash) Max (Heatbreak length) Recommended
Retraction Distance (mm) 0.5 2 1.25
Retraction Speed (mm/s) - - -
Z Lift 1x Layer Height 2x Layer Height 1x Layer Height

Retraction distance: Length of filament retracted. It varies depending on the type of material. Be careful with flexible material, retraction can damage the filament and prevent further extrusion.

Retraction speed: Speed at which the extruder motor drives back the filament.

Z-axis elevation when retracted (Z lift): Helps clear any blob or bumps in the print while fast traveling.

# Benchmarked Performance

# Flow rate @ Nozzle Size (mm³/s)
Material Brand Max Temp (°C) 0.4mm 0.6mm 0.9mm 1.2mm 1.8mm
PLA Amz3D 200 66 77
PLA Amz3D 260 114 154
PETG Overture 250 42 84
PA12 - CF Polymaker 300 113
PEI 3DxTech 390 83
TPE Ninjatek 235 14
TPU Sainsmart 220 31

# Printing Speed

Refer to our 3D printer print speed calculation blog (opens new window) for more information.

For precise linear speed calculation, refer to our second section in our flow for pellets blog (opens new window).

Make sure you use the right speed for your nozzle size and layer thickness. You can refer to our product spec sheet for detailed output flow based on experimental data

# Non Planar

The clearance angle around the nozzle is depicted in the accompanying image. The addition of the Part Cooling Add-On decreases the 41° clearance to 7.1°.

Zephyr Extruder Planar and Non Planar Comparison

# High Temperature Use

The Zephyr™, along with its various add-ons, is designed to operate within an environmental temperature range of up to 40°C. Certain components have temperature limitations as follows: The product cooling fan and part cooling fans can both function effectively up to 40°C.

If you intend to use this product in an environment with temperatures as high as 150°C, you should take the following factors into account:

  • Implement the Water Cooling Add-on (Unavailable during Early Access).
  • Consider our Dyze Design’s Liquid Cooling System, should the need arise.
  • Opt for High Temperature Liquid Cooling Tubing.
  • Ensure that the cable harnesses & connectors are resistant to high temperatures.
  • Do not use the Part Cooling Add-on in high-temperature environments.

We can assist you in acquiring any necessary upgrades or custom components required for high-temperature environments. If you need any of these items or questions, contact sales.

# Compatible Dyze Design Products

# Filament Sensor

To increase the reliability of your print. Consider adding the following products to your Zephyr™ Extruder.Contact sales for further information.

# PT100 amplifier

Coming with two PT100 sensors installed, the Zephyr™ provides accurate temperature readings on its working temperature range. Using the PT100 amplifier board (opens new window), you will reliably transmit those measurements to your controller.

# Stepper Driver

Using our Stepper Driver (opens new window) ensures your extruder will deliver the maximum of its capacity at all times.

# Nema17 Liquid Cooling Block

In an application where the environment is heated, consider using a Liquid Cooling block (opens new window) to ensure your motor stays in its temperature operating range. Works in tandem with the Liquid Cooled version of the Zephyr™ Extruder (unavailable during early access)

# Maintenance & Troubleshooting

# Clogged Nozzle

# Causes

Clogging can be caused by a few factors. Make sure you understand which one is causing the issue and solve it before attempting a new print.

  • Bad slicer settings

    • Too high retraction. Make sure you are not pulling the molten polymer too high. Refer to the retraction section
    • Too high volumetric flow. Make sure you aren't asking too much of the Zephyr™. Thick and wide lines are misleading. Slow printing speed can still represent a high volumetric throughput.
  • Overheating the Heatbreak

    • Temperature on top heater too high. Reduce top heater temperature starting with 10°C
    • Malfunctioning system cooling. Inspect cooling system to find the problem
      • Air
        • Fan installed & running properly
        • Heatsink exempt of dust and obstructions
      • Water
        • Pump functioning properly
        • Liquid medium in good condition
        • No restriction or leaks in flow
        • Fans on radiator properly running
    • Coldzone overheating
    • Environment temperature above rated specification
      • Consider moving to liquid cooled version
      • Lower environment temperature in enclosure
    • Gearbox overheating
      • Inspect bearings and gears
      • Replace grease
    • Motor overheating
      • Verify stepper driver settings
      • Install active motor cooling
    • Improper contact with heatbreak seat
      • Adjust Hotend alignment
      • Screw nozzle assembly until proper contact is made

# Unclogging techniques

  • Temporary extrude hotter

    1. Raise the temperature by steps of 10°C.
    2. Wait until the setpoint is reached.
    3. Send a slow extrusion command such as the one below.
    G0 F60 E25
    
    1. Repeat until the extruder is unclogged or the temperature is too high.
  • Hot Pull & Cold Pull

    Follow the method explained here (opens new window)

  • Mechanical cleaning

    1. Unload filament
    2. Remove the nozzle assembly
    3. Apply heat
    4. Using a small tool with a >Ø1.5mm, remove the clog

# Gears

To ensure proper product longevity and trouble-free operations, it is crucial for the gears to remain properly lubricated. You can access the grease holes by removing the connector shield. While turning the motor, apply Hasco FM Crystal Grease in the grease ports. It's worth noting that the Zephyr™ comes pre-greased with Hasco FM Crystal Grease . To simplify the application process, you may find it helpful to use a compact grease gun like the Astro Mini Grease Gun (opens new window).

Zephyr Extruder Grease Ports

# Extrusion Wheels Cleaning

Using a Q-tip or a soft brush, clean the extrusion wheels when they are slowly turning. Removing most of the thermoplastic build-up. Once the plastic is dislodged from the teeth, blow compressed air on the wheels to remove the remaining bits. Remove the left side cover should you need a bigger opening.

Zephyr Wheels Cleaning

# Periodic Inspection

To ensure the gearbox and its components last a long time, we recommend conducting periodic comprehensive inspections and maintenance. Regularly check all the gears and the housing. To do this, disassemble the top cover from the top to expose the gears. Use towels to clean away most of the old grease. Replace any gears that show excessive wear marks or have worn-down teeth.

Disassembly is required to inspect the gearbox.

  1. Remove all covers

    • Remove Left Cover

      Zephyr Left Cover Removal

    • Remove Right Cover

      Zephyr Right Cover Removal

    • Remove Hotend Cover

      Zephyr Hotend Cover Removal

    • Remove Connector Cover

      Zephyr Connector Cover Removal

  2. Remove the hotend

Zephyr Hotend Removal

  1. Remove the System Cooling fan. Apply a maximum of 0.4 N*m on fan reassembly

Zephyr System Cooling Fan Removal

  1. Unscrew the Front block& remove the Front block and Gearblock all together. Apply maximum 1 N*m on block reassembly

Zephyr Front Block Removal

# MeltCore™ Nozzle Assembly Change

The MeltCore™ & nozzle of the Zephyr™ can be readily removed when needed. To achieve this, please follow these steps using :

  • 9 mm socket wrench
  • 3 mm Allen Key screwdriver

To do so you need to:

  1. Heat the product to the extrusion temperature

  2. Unload the filament

  3. Remove the part cooling bracket if there’s one

Zephyr Part Cooling Removal

  1. Unscrew the two socket head to release the clamp.

Zephyr MeltCore Release Clamp

  1. Unscrew the MeltCore™ nozzle assembly & Pull it out.

Zephyr Meltcore Unscrewing

  1. Replace the MeltCore™ nozzle assembly with a new one.

  2. Screw it in place until it comes in contact with its seat. DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN. Maximum 0.5 N*m.

  3. Secure the assembly by tightening the two M3 socket heads. Tighten to 2 N*m

  4. Re-install the part cooling bracket

# Align the Hotend

The Hotend is factory aligned. Should you remove the hotend, it may be required to realign the assembly in order to secure a proper thermal transfer between the heatbreak and its coldzone seat. This procedure assumes that the covers and hotend are dissassembled

  1. Remove the nozzle from the hotend.

Zephyr MeltCore Removal from the Hotend

  1. Install the hotend in place with the PT100 oriented towards the motor.

Zephyr Hotend Installation

  1. Fastened the hotend on the coldzone with the four M3 screws. Leave 0.5-1 mm loose on the screw.

  2. Hold the hotend on its seat.

Zephyr Hotend on its seat

  1. Screw the nozzle in until the heatbreak is properly seated. Then unscrew for one turn
  • Insert and screw nozzle assembly

Zephyr Nozzle Insertion

  • Properly seated - Heatbreak recessed

Zephyr Hotend Seated

  • Unscrewed a turn - Heatbreak sticks out

Zephyr Hotend Heatbreak Sticks Out

  1. Tighten the hotend. Recommended torque of 1 N*m on each screw.

Zephyr Tighten the Hotend

  1. Screw the nozzle back in place without exceeding 0.5 N*m torque

Zephyr Hotend Seated

  1. Tighten the nozzle clamp using the two M3 screws. Apply 2 N*m on both screws.

Zephyr MeltCore Release Clamp

Last Updated: 7/8/2024, 5:09:12 PM